We’re super happy to tell that me, Joel and Doug Brownlie are going to be guest editors for an exciting upcoming Videography Special Issue in Journal of Marketing Management titled “Screening Marketing: Videography and the Expanding Horizons of Filmic Research“.
It’s a fantastic opportunity for all research filmmakers to embrace video in a variety of ways. Notably, we’re accepting film submissions. As far as we know, our “film only” submission format is presented for the first time ever in a renown academic journal. In addition, it’s possible to send “film plus commentary” pieces as well as classic written papers.
This is an astronomic step towards making video an even more legit research format. We hope the special issue will open new doors and spur new creative thinking and approaches in research that is in tune with “era of video” we currently live in. Feel free to be in contact with us should you wish to inquire about submissions or requirements. Submissions are due November 1, 2016.
See the detailed Call for Papers behind the link HERE.
This list hopes to facilitate access to full-length consumer research videographies screened previously in conferences (e.g. ACR, CCT, EMAC) or journals (e.g. CMC, QMR) over the last 10 years that are “free to view” online. I find it a common problem that many of the films are scattered around the net and difficult to find when needed. They are an excellent resource and certainly merit more attention – not to mention citations!
I reviewed all consumer research conference proceedings and journal special issues that I know have presented films. Then I tried my best to track down each film across video streaming sites or authors to see if they are available online (in full, free access). Please notify me if your film is still missing – I’d be happy to add all! I found a total of 33 films from 2005-2015. With an average 700+ views these films also prove they reach far beyond standard conference audiences.
Find here the full list (CLICK THE TITLE TO ACCESS FILMS):
Cléret, Baptiste (2015) “Street Corner Compromises” ACR
Hietanen, Joel and Joonas Rokka (2015) “Monstrous Organizing: The Dubstep Electronic Music Scene” CCT / ACR / EMAC
Bonnin, Gael, Alain Goudey and Marat Bakpayev (2014) “Meet the robot: Nao’s chronicle” ACR / EMAC
Rokka, Joonas, Pekka Rousi, and Vessi Hämäläinen (2014) “Follow me on dead media: analog authenticities in alternative skateboarding scene” ACR
van Laer, Tom, Luca Visconti and Stephanie Feiereisen (2014) “Need for narrative” ACR
Veer, Ekant (2014) “I am struggling: men’s stories of mental illness” ACR
Wijland, Roel (2014) “In brutal times” ACR
Myöhänen, Henri and Joel Hietanen (2013) “Entertained to excess: The contemporary practices of boredom” ACR
O’Sullivan, Stephen (2013) “What happens when brand evangelism meets entrepreneurship? Introducing the second tier tribal entrepreneur” EACR
Ramachandran, Giridhar (2013) “Consumption communities as third spaces” ACR
Rokka, Joonas, Baptiste Cléret and Alice Sohier (2013) “Entre-deux-mondes: the shaping of artistic projects in a local music scene” ACR
Seregina, Anastasia, Norah Cambell, Bernardo Figueiredo and Hannu Uotila (2013) “A Pen” ACR
Barretta, Paul and Yi-Chia Wu (2012) “Perceptions of music authenticity” ACR
Viitala, Karolus and Hietanen, Joel (2012) “Differing everydays – Planning and emergence in contemporary mundane routines” ACR
Hietanen, Joel, Joonas Rokka, and Risto Roman (2011) “Pushing the scene – tensions and emergence in an accelerated marketplace culture” ACR / EACR
Hu, Anne and Curtis Haugvegt (2011) “Changing consumer behavior in diet and health” ACR
Uotila, Hannu and Joel Hietanen (2011) “Post-materialist work: Emerging self-actualization in the video industry” ACR
Caldwell, Marylouise and Ingeborg Kleppe (2010) “Walk the talk: Living positive with HIV” ACR
Castano, Raquel, Maria Eugenia Perez and Claudia Quintanilla (2010) “Cross-border shopping: family narratives” Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, Vol. 13, No. 1, 45-57.
Cherrier, Hélène and Tresa Ponnor (2010) “Trash in the eye of the beholder” Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, Vol. 13, No. 1, 8-23.
Rabikowska, Marta (2010) “Whose street is it anyway? Visual ethnography and self-reflection” Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, Vol. 13, No. 1, 58-83.
Webster, Cynthia, Richard Seymour and Kate Dallenbach (2010) “Behind closed doors: opportunity identification through observational research” Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, Vol. 13, No. 1, 24-35.
Eckhardt, Giana and Andreas Bengtsson (2009) “Naturalistic group interviewing in China” ACR / (2010) Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, Vol. 13, No. 1, 36-44.
Fleck, Joao Pedro, Carlos Rossi and Nicolas Tonsho (2009) “Vinileiros” ACR
Rokka, Joonas, Joel Hietanen and Kristine DeValck (2009) “Brothers in paint: a practice-oriented inquiry to tribal marketplace culture” ACR
Caldwell, Marylouise and Paul Henry (2008) “Urban archetypal hedonistas” ACR / (2010) Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, Vol. 13, No. 1, 84-96.
Veer, Ekant (2008) “This day is to be special: The role of exaggerated contrast in the Indian wedding” ACR
Henry, Paul and Marylouise Caldwell (2007) “A right to life: reducing maternal death in Pakistan” ACR
Kjeldgaard, Dannie and Jacob Östberg (2007) “Coffee Grounds and the Global Cup” Consumption Markets and Culture, Vol. 10, No. 2, 175-187.
Caldwell, Marylouise and Paul Henry (2006) “Headbanging as resistance or refuge?” ACR
Ulusoy, Ebru (2006) “Not Desperate Houswives”, ACR
Bengtsson, Andreas, Jacob Östberg and Dannie Kjeldgaard (2005) “Prisoners in paradise: subcultural resistance to the marketization of tattooing” Consumption Markets and Culture, Vol 8, No. 3, 261-274.
Bergvall, Sven and Jacob Östberg (2005) “Burning Bock” ACR
Academic videography productions taking some important steps this week as the film festival was introduced to European Marketing Academy’s yearly conference for the first time. This is excellent news making it possible for filmmakers to submit their work to number of major venues. In addition to ACR conference (Association for Consumer Research) – where the pioneering film work has become a staple feature since 2002 – other options at the moment include for example CCT (Consumer Culture Theory conference), AFM (French Marketing Association) and JNRC (French consumer research conference). This is absolutely great, and we really hope spread even further. Next major conference to invite videographies is the Winter AMA 2016 (American Marketing Assoc). Please send your work!!
The EMAC film track where we joined offered five very nice films touching topics as diverse as consumers’ need for narratives, heterotopic tourist experiences, robots, and electronic music markets. Find the film trailers behind the link here. Our film is a completely new edit of our previously made, award-winning Pushing the Scene (2011) film with a specific focus on exploring how contemporary music scenes and markets come into being and dissipate and how they are negotiated in a complex relationship between the marginal and the mainstream, commercial interests, technologies and ideologies. We conceptualize this evolution in the film as “monstrous organizing” and thus extend prior market and consumer research studies on market dynamics. Check the trailer here (we will make the full film available later): https://vimeo.com/127473931
Can’t stop this! I had the pleasure of facilitating a two-day Videography Workshop a couple of weeks ago (something similar we organized at Rouen Business School last year). This time we gathered at the Delft University of Technology in Holland that proved to be a fantastic site for the event: the entire facility was well-versed for creative work with massive open working spaces, several “real” workshops with tools and machines, and everywhere around us students working on their product design sketches and projects – in fact, many of them were doing films right on the spot.
We had work planned for two days with a brilliant group of 15 aspiring videographers. The main objective was to consider how to embrace video media in our academic work. The program was loaded, as one might expect: we started off by analyzing various streams filmmaking – including documentary, ethnographic, experimental, artistic filmmaking – from their theoretical, stylistic and practical underpinnings and approaches, followed by a more hands-on part where we set out to test our filmmaking skills by producing short films, and by going through the different details in production phases of pre-production, shoot, and edit. As a result, we produced two short films (2-3 minutes each) in a matter of hours of highly effective and creative teamwork. The highlight was the screening of the films at the “film festival”.
Two stunning quality films from first-timers, I must say! To reflect a bit on what we did, our main filming task was to come up with a compelling audio-visual story that would address one of the key strategic areas of TUDelft – namely sustainability, health, behavioral change, or technological innovation. This proved a pretty challenging task taken that we did not have much time to go into these topics before starting. Yet, time and energy was won by applying state-of-the-art storyboarding methods in crafting the filmic stories, and appropriate division of responsibilities in terms of film production – in directing, scripting, shooting, sound recording, editing etc. As we progressed the action-packed two-day schedule, the groups proved that doing films is all about: TEAMWORK, PLANNING, CREATIVITY, and FOCUS. I believe these are the big secrets in getting some serious filming done.
Overall the workshop can be considered bon succès thanks to all participants, and especially to Prof Maria Sääksjärvi who made the workshop possible in the first place. Find enclosed some snaps from the action. Can’t wait for the next one!!
Our award-winning film ‘Pushing the Scene’ has spurred some good interest in the forums as well as amassed a delightful number of viewers. Just to give an update on this, the film, which was released on Vimeo last November 2011, has got over 4000 views only in a matter of months. From an academic point of view, this needs to be considered some sort of success: typically academic research projects and their findings are available only to a handful of people (i.e. academics). Let’s hope we can spread the word even more so here’s the film one more time!
Are you about to engage in the business of doing academic films? Or do you already have a nearly finished film project on desktop? Before you move on, here are some key considerations that you should take into account that may help you in overcoming some of the most common challenges in film production. The insights are based on reflections and discussion from ACR 2011 special session on “making better video ethnographies”, chaired by Paul Henry and Marylouise Caldwell (University of Sydney).
As increasing number of academics are planning and doing academic videographies – i.e. academic research on video format – it is worthwhile to consider some common themes that often have a significant impact on the success of such projects, especially in the case where the researcher’s aim is to produce ethnographies on video. Among these, we feel that following points should be acknowledged.
Composition of the research team
Although we believe that it is possible to do academic films also as solo projects, we think that having a team may offer several benefits. Most importantly, simply the act of filming and interviewing at the same time is rather hard – especially if you want to use several cameras and points of view. So having multiple members in a team will help. The second most important consideration could be whether you want to make one of your key informants (i.e. insiders in your research scene) a team member too. Our own experience with the films ‘Pushing the Scene’ and ‘Brothers in Paint’ has been that “insider member” is like having a guarantee for your film success. Building your film on a dialogue between your key informants is way more interesting than more direct Q&A style of interviewing between the researcher and the researched. This leads us into the second key point:
Access to informants / phenomenon
Doing ethnography means having access into a (cultural) phenomenon and people in it. Although as in any ethnographic project, we believe that when shooting video, this aspect becomes even more challenging. Pulling a camera out in an interview situation may scare people off and make them nervous. Here also having an insider member may help significantly.
Storytelling in video
Making academic films is always a business of building a compelling story and showing evidence on your topic/argument. However, telling a compelling story on film vs. academic paper is something that we should investigate and practice further on. It seems that filmmakers tend to rely on storytelling tactics common to academic papers – something which may not necessarily work out as well on film. Here, watching what documentary filmmakers (and why not other similar artists) are doing may prove helpful. For example, think about different ways of showing emotion, affect, and contrast on film! In addition, embedding your story into an authentic material and spatiotemporal context is a crucial yet difficult task.
Theory building and linking
Should your film include theory or references to prior research? Yes. The business of academic film production is always a business of building theory and/or linking your study within wider interpretive frames that stand on existing research/literature. Of course, again, there are different ways of doing this and we believe that references to others’ work can be done in a discrete manner (and just a personal tip – it’s not a very good idea to show the article or book cover in the film!), employing either voiceover or text on film. In addition, it is also inevitable to communicate your conclusions / contributions to theory – something that STILL seems to be missing from some of the films. Using visualization and graphical (and why not symbolic as well) expression here is a good idea.
Voice of god or talking heads? How to narrate and communicate your story? Common trend in documentary filmmaking is the use of “voice of god” type of voiceover which explains what the film is about and what happens in it etc. We think that here filmmakers could be more creative and reflective in their approach. We wrote about this point in an recent article (it can be found in my thesis, page 128-151).
Yes, it seems that you cant plan enough for successful film production! This is a very good point brought up by Marylouise and Paul. Not to mention having enough battery and memory in your cam, there are different ways you can also script and blueprint your film beforehand. This saves you energy and time. Think about which sections, arguments, locations, sites and key informants you actually need in the final film. And finally, don’t forget to shoot b-reel film. It can save you in a number of ways once you get into the editing phase.
And the list continues… hope you find these helpful! Thanks for the participants in the session ;)
I finally found the time to blog about my doctoral dissertation after a busy round of conferences and filmmaking this summer. I successfully defended my thesis, titled “Exploring the Cultural Logic of Translocal Marketplace Cultures: Essays on New Methods and Empirical Insights”, at the Aalto University School of Economics in May 2010. I had the honour to have professor Robert Kozinets (York Univerisy, Schulich School of Business) as my co-examiner and opponent.
To explain briefly, my dissertation research involves taking a cultural, practice-oriented perspective to consumption and markets. It pays attention to the new forms of marketplace cultures that have recently emerged due to cultural and technological transformations such as the increasing hypermobility of people and new means of digital communication and connectivity around the globe. New computer-mediated social networks – iconized by Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, and other consumption-oriented online communities and groups – have given rise to new kinds of cultural production. My dissertation examines the translocal nature of such phenomena: culture, identity, space, and sites that are not bound or limited by particular national, geographic, or territorial constraints and through which consumers’ lives, experiences, and practices are increasingly mediated today.
New digitalized consumption communities accelerate translocal marketplace cultures
The key notion of the dissertation is translocality, which refers to a transnational network of interconnected local sites and social spaces, both physical and virtual, through which culture is increasingly being negotiated, shaped, and produced. To conceptualize and provide concrete examples of translocal cultural production, the dissertation investigates consumption-oriented communities, the so-called ‘consumer neo-tribes’, as particularly good examples of translocal communities.
By investigating consumer communities that gather around a common interest or lifestyle – I studied budget travelling and extreme sport activities (paintball) – the dissertation offers insights suggesting that translocal communities and practices play an important role in transnational cultural production. The empirical studies illustrate how translocal communities increasingly collaborate, share information, exchange knowledge, and negotiate consumption practices via new digital media. In addition, the findings show that the new communication media, combined with less constrained transnational mobility, has made it possible for consumers to take part in various consumer communities in radically new ways and with less effort. These key developments, the dissertation claims, have spurred the creation of more profound, organized, empowered, and transnationally spread consumer networks.
New methods for studying translocal marketplace cultures: netnography and videography
My dissertation also lays out new approaches and methods for studying translocal communities and practices. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in both online and offline settings, I develop netnographic and videographic methods that may benefit companies, researchers, and policy-makers in analyzing how new forms of translocal marketplace practices emerge, spread, and transform.
Altogether, my dissertation package includes a summary essay plus four individual essays – three of which have been published in international academic journals. The fourth essay, a videographic study accompanied with a paper, has been described also in this blog. Here’s the list of essays, just to give you a better idea of the contents:
1. Rokka, J.: Netnographic Inquiry and New Translocal Sites of the Social. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 34, (2010) 381-387.
2. Rokka, J. & Moisander, J.: Environmental Dialogue in Online Communities: Negotiating Ecological Citizenship among Global Travellers. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 33, (2009) 199-205.
3. De Valck, K., Rokka, J. & Hietanen, J.: Videography in Consumer Research: Visions for a Method on the Rise. Finanza Marketing e Produzione, 27, (2009) 81-100.
4. Rokka, J., Hietanen, J. & De Valck, K.: Brothers in Paint: Practice-Oriented Inquiry into a Tribal Marketplace Culture. In Advances in Consumer Research, 37, (2010) Campbell, M.C., Inman, J., Pieters, R. (eds.), (forthcoming). (Videography and paper).
I was happy to get some attention from the local news media. I was interviewed by a number of newspapers who also made some of the material available online. To my slight surprise, the work and ideas presented in my thesis were well received by the reporters. I guess this can be considered some sort of success, at least when considering the fact that many academic works simply wont translate to wider audiences. I think one possible reason for this is that I had quite a few timely themes to discuss, including the consequences of social media, consumer tribes, video research, online research etc. In addition, what gained a lot of interest in my thesis was exactly what we’ve been discussing in this blog: research on video and its accessibility online. This is a good signal for our future work!
Here’s a couple of links I found (in Finnish unfortunately):
Kauppalehti 17.5.2010 “Web-Based Communities Produce New Forms of Consumer Culture”
Turun Sanomat 24.5.2010 “Consumer Power in Peer-to-Peer Communities”
Kaleva 22.5.2010 “Understanding Consumers Everyday Lives”
My inspiration for video research was spurred by a few occurrences that took place in 2006-7. Firstly, I had just jumped on to my doctoral studies at the Helsinki School of Economics (currently known as Aalto University School of Economics) the previous year and was anxiously looking for new potential topics for my thesis work. I soon discovered that I needed to look outside of Finland to be able to find something interesting.
As it happened, I found myself first on an intensive course on Consumer Culture Theory (Odense, Denmark) headed by some of the most renowned figures in cultural consumer research, including Eric Arnould and Craig Thompson. The course instantly set the tone for my future work: I was caught to study the cultural aspects of consumption and consumer society from emerging approaches that stem largely from cultural anthropology and sociology.
Not long after, I took part in my first research congress: the 2nd Consumer Culture Theory Conference 2007 (at York University). This annual conference was organized for researchers employing qualitative, interpretive, ethnographic, videographic, netnographic and phenomenological approaches, in other words, in many ways emerging, if not completely novel approaches considering the dominant corpus of work within consumer and marketing research.
CCT conference was a success in many ways, not least because it also offered conjoined workshops designed for new students entering the field. I took part in the Video Ethnography Workshop, which was held for the third time. The purpose of this two-day workshop was to experience videographic research in a hands-on manner, guided by experts. After opening lectures on video-based research production, student teams were given camcorders and editing software as well as professional assistance for designing a small-scale video study in practice. By the end of the workshop we also presented our videos and received feedback.
During the assignment I ran into my future co-author, Kristine de Valck from HEC Paris. We conducted a video study in a local shopping mall interviewing and observing consumers about their personal styles. We got to experience some on-field action and stumbled upon a number of challenges typical for video research including 1) the difficulty of gaining access to people in such public environments and 2) the trouble of presenting camera in interview settings without scaring people away instantly. Despite of these, we managed to shoot some footage that we could edit and produce into a short film – my first videographic experiment.
The videography event was organized by Russell Belk and Robert Kozinets who have written several articles and book chapters about video research (see Belk and Kozinets 2005; Kozinets and Belk 2006). They have also founded the Association for Consumer Research Film Festival. Held annually in the North American ACR conference and in rotating years in Europe, Latin America and Asia Pacific, the film festival has spawned considerable interest among consumer researchers now for over 9 years.
As soon as the workshop was behind, I began to ponder how video research could work out for me. What is it good for? What makes it so compelling? Why hasn’t it been used previously? What new avenues could be opened up? Soon Kristine asked, if I could join her in Paris and to come up with a brand new video project. I knew this would be the perfect chance, so I was in…
Belk, R.W. & Kozinets, R.V. (2005) Videography in Marketing and Consumer Research. Qualitative Market Research, 8, 128-141.
Kozinets, R.V. & Belk, R.W. (2006). Camcorder Society: Quality Videography in Consumer and Marketing Research. In Handbook of Qualitative Research Methods in Marketing, R.W. Belk (ed), Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.